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The Public School Insights Blog

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NAEP Gains Ground

New York City students’ steady gains in state assessments have sparked debate over the value of the tests. The Race to the Top guidelines have profound implications for this debate.

The city’s gains have far outpaced those of the state as a whole, but critics point to stagnation in the city’s National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores as cause for concern. State tests are easy to manipulate, they argue. But NAEP, which assesses a much broader range of content and skills and cannot be easily gamed, represents a better measure of student learning.

New York City schools chancellor Joel Klein counters that the state assessments do measure what’s important. State standards, curricula and assessments aren’t aligned to NAEP, so NAEP scores offer a less valid measure of learning under New York state standards.

The draft Race to the Top application makes it pretty clear where the Education Department stands. The Department will judge state applicants on the extent ...

There is a Finland for every taste. If you want to advocate for an education reform, any education reform, just imply that they do it in Finland.

Newsweek is the latest in a long line of national news magazines to make use of this all-purpose Finland. Newsweek contributor Stefan Theil touts Finland’s success in an article advocating the use of value-added data to measure teacher effectiveness:

[W]ithout such testing and evaluation, education policy will remain vague and approximate, based on folk wisdom and political expediency rather than evidence and facts…. [M]ost of what governments around the world are calling "education investments" still fails to meet the effectiveness test.

Testing and evaluation are without a doubt essential, and we would all welcome much better performance data on which to base policy. But it is disingenuous at best to suggest that the most successful nations succeed primarily as a result of their testing and evaluation systems.

Finland offers a case in point. Some months ago, Finnish education leader Reijo Laukkanen told me: “We don't have any evaluation of teachers. The working morale and the working ethics of the teachers are very high, and we can also ...

A couple of weeks ago, I threw a hissy fit over the influence of marketing and the media on young people’s academic habits. Afterwards, I received a couple of emails laying the blame for poor academic habits at parents’ feet. If parents weren’t missing in action, the argument went, young people would be less disruptive and more invested in school. I’m not sure it’s as simple as that.

A new British study of parenting is suggestive. It found that parents are more likely to spend time with their children and monitor their children’s activities that they were twenty years ago. The researchers speculate that that youth behavior problems in the UK reflect--you guessed it--“the influence of youth culture.”

Yes, this is a study of British families. Yet I wonder if we would find similar trends in the United States. American author Michael Chabon recently went so far as to lament the encroachment of adults on the time-honored freedoms of childhood:

The Wilderness of Childhood is gone; the days of adventure are past. The land ruled by children, to which a kid might exile himself for at least some portion of every day from the neighboring kingdom of adulthood, has in large part been taken over, co-opted, colonized, and finally absorbed by the neighbors.

Surely Chabon has a point. Thirty years ago, I made a daily ten-block trek--alone and on foot--to my elementary school. Try to do that now, even in the nation’s most well-heeled suburbs, and your parents will probably get a visit from child protective services. Many children seem to have little time away from adults. This ...

A decade ago, Interlake High School was the lowest-performing school in the Bellevue, Washington school district. Now, students thrive on a rich diet of demanding core courses. Student achievement rose steadily as more and more students opted for challenging AP and International Baccalaureate coursework. (See our story about Interlake here)

Principal Sharon Collins chalks her school’s success up to the ambitious de-tracking effort she launched when she became principal. The school eliminated the lowest-rung courses and urged students into the more challenging AP and IB routes. Key to this strategy was early and sustained support for struggling students.

We recently chatted with Collins by phone:

Public School Insights: I understand that about ten years ago, Interlake was the lowest-performing school in the district. What changed?

Collins: Well, there were quite a few components that came into it. One of them [is that] the school went through huge remodel. We got an opportunity to reinvent ourselves when we moved into the new building.

When I first came there, I met with every staff member for a 20-minute interview. We talked a lot about curriculum and climate. Those two things were the focus for the school. I instituted a whole committee to work on the ...

Today, the Washington Post praised Secretary Duncan for his promise to "eschew politics, ideology and the preferences of interest groups for 'what works.'" Unfortunately, opinions about "what works" are hard to liberate from politics, ideology and the preferences of interest groups.

As Mike Petrilli notes, few of the reforms advanced by the Race to the Top guidance rest on ironclad evidence. If only we knew for sure "what works" to turn around struggling schools or ensure widespread success among charter schools!

We do have an idea of what is working in schools and districts around the country. This website profiles public schools and districts that succeed by improving their curricula, assessment strategies, staff development, and attention to individual students' needs, among other things. Our challenge is to turn "what is working" in these schools and districts right now into prescriptions for "what works" in many more cases.

One way to mute the influence of politics and ideology is to demand some humility from all sides. While we're at it, we should demand more education R&D. After ...

Poverty does not keep "gifted and motivated" young people from college, writes Jay Mathews. They get scholarships. Instead, he argues, it is poor schooling that prevents low-income students from realizing their gifts or preparing for college.

I think Mathews gets it wrong.

For the moment, let's leave aside the multiple causes, both within and beyond schools, of low-income students' poor academic performance. Mathews seems a bit blasé about the impact of financial impediments to college.

Consider, for example, the lot of strong, if not stellar, students from low- and medium-income families. No, they're not the stand-out stars Mathews is writing about. But that's the point. There is troubling evidence that low- and medium-income students of average accomplishments are not nearly as likely to attend college as their wealthier peers are. Their success is a critical measure of opportunity.

High-income students who perform poorly on eighth-grade mathematics tests are about as likely to complete college as low-income students who perform in the highest quartile. Sure, the low-income students may lose ground in high ...

vonzastrowc's picture

Race to Judgment

You have to pity the states. No sooner did the Education Department release the draft application for Race to the Top (RttT) Funds than bloggers raised a chorus of voices predicting that states would weasel out of their sacred duty to improve public schools. Anything short of stunning success in the next two years, it seems, will be proof positive of states' obstructionism, self-interest and sloth.

OK, I exaggerate. But some bloggers seem loath to admit that reforms take time, careful planning and--yes--even caution. Consider the lot of states that must commit to common standards and assessments that don't yet exist, teacher evaluation plans that have few precedents, or turnaround strategies that rest on very slender evidence

The RttT's  teacher and principal effectiveness measures are a case in point. The draft application defines "effective teachers" as teachers who produce a year's worth of academic gains in a year's worth of time. "Highly effective teachers" produce more than a year's worth of gains in a year. Sounds reasonable, but recent research suggests that a given teacher's effectiveness often varies widely from year to year. Teachers who seem to add the most value for their ...

With school turnarounds near the top of the administration's agenda, one turnaround model is getting the lion's share of attention: Close the school, get a new principal, hire a new batch of teachers, and start from scratch. Unfortunately, it is not clear that this model is more feasible or effective than any other.

Evidence on effective turnaround strategies is scant, to say the least. To favor any one model is, at least to some degree, to fire a shot in the dark. School reconstitutions will founder if few qualified teachers and leaders are waiting in the wings to replace those who have been dismissed. This is no trivial problem as ...

The GAO just offered a report on Washington, DC's education reforms. According to the Washington Post, the report offers equal measures of praise and criticism. The District's response to that criticism gave me pause.

The report commended Mayor Fenty and Chancellor Rhee for "bold steps" to close schools, raise scores and improve teachers' skills. Yet it criticized the district for "a lack of clear strategic planning with specific targets that can be communicated to the community stakeholders."

The deputy mayor's response to this criticism was curious, to say the least:

Victor Reinoso, deputy mayor for education, said the Fenty administration was more interested in results than detailed blueprints.

"Our emphasis has been on accountability and results, and less on plans which the city was quite successful in doing previously," he said.

What does that mean? That they're merely implementing their predecessors' ...

People looking for a public school Cinderella story need look no further than George Hall Elementary in Mobile, Alabama. The once struggling school, which serves mostly low-income children, now boasts state math and reading test scores most wealthy suburban schools would be proud of. (See our story about George Hall's Success).

George Hall did not have to sacrifice all but the basics to get there. Instead, the school's staff courageously focused on what some would consider frills in an era of high-stakes accountability: innovative technologies; rich vocabulary and content knowledge; even field trips.

We recently spoke with George Hall principal Terri Tomlinson and teachers Elizabeth Reints and Melissa Mitchell.

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